Home / Flightamins ingredients, scientific research and traditional usage

A detailed look at the active ingredients and benefits of the superfoods in Flightamins  

Acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighia glabra)

 

acerola in Flightamins

Description, habitat, health benefits and traditional uses. Acerola (also called Acerola Cherry, Barbados Cherry, Cerise des Antilles, Cerise de la Barbade, Puerto Rican Cherry, West Indian Cherry, Malpighia punicifolia) is a fast growing bushy shrub or small tree, a native plant to the Caribbean; it also grows in northern South America, Central America, Texas, Florida and coastal Southern California. Ripened cherry-like fruits of acerola are bright red and soft, and have a pleasant taste. They are rich in vitamin C, contain carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin. Acerola is employed for preventing scurvy, atherosclerosis, blood clots, cancer, the common cold, pressure sores, bleeding in the eye, tooth decay, gum infections, depression, hay fever, collagen disorders, and premature aging, and for improving physical endurance.

Active ingredients. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is the main active ingredient of acerola. Because vitamin C is necessary for the synthesis of collagen and production of brain chemicals, it is an essential nutrient for keeping healthy your immune system, bone, skin, blood vessels and brain.

Provitamin A (carotene) is another important nutrient of the acerola fruit. It is known that vitamin A is important for the immune system, vision, growth, development, and production of red blood cells. Ascorbic acid, carotene and polyphenols are natural antioxidatants of acerola that protect the cells of your body from the oxidative damage.

The acerola fruits also contain thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, polyphenols, calcium, iron, potassium and magnesium as well as protein, fiber and fatty acids; all these nutrients are necessary in your healthy diet.

Key properties. Consuming acerola-based products during travel could be beneficial to your body because the acerola fruits

  • provides many nutrients
  • provides antioxidants
  • supports immunity
  • may reduce inflammation 
  • supports healthy brain function
  • protects skin from sun exposure
  • improves physical endurance

Literature summary. Positive properties of acerola have been demonstrated by many research studies conducted in humans. For example, Dias with colleagues (1) demonstrated that acerola juice may reduce inflammation and diminish obesity-associated defects. It has been shown that acerola juice increases the absorption and excretion of ascorbic acid (2), while the product containing acerola extract decreases symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (3). Polyphenols of the acerola extract may decrease the increased level of sugar in blood (4). According to Sakagami and coauthors (5), acerola extracts may stimulate the killing activity of immune cells.

References

  1. Dias FM, Leffa DD, Daumann F, Marques Sde O, Luciano TF, Possato JC, de Santana AA, Neves RX, Rosa JC, Oyama LM, Rodrigues B, de Andrade VM, de Souza CT, de Lira FS. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake protects against alterations to proteins involved in inflammatory and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue of obese mice fed a cafeteria diet. Lipids Health Dis. 2014 Feb 4;13:24.
  2. Uchida E, Kondo Y, Amano A, Aizawa S, Hanamura T, Aoki H, Nagamine K, Koizumi T, Maruyama N, Ishigami A. Absorption and excretion of ascorbic acid alone and in acerola (Malpighia emarginata) juice: comparison in healthy Japanese subjects.Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(11):1744-7.
  3. Corren J, Lemay M, Lin Y, Rozga L, Randolph RK. Clinical and biochemical effects of a combination botanical product (ClearGuard) for allergy: a pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Nutr J. 2008 Jul 14;7:20.
  4. Hanamura T, Mayama C, Aoki H, Hirayama Y, Shimizu M. Antihyperglycemic effect of polyphenols from Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Aug;70(8):1813-20.
  5. Motohashi N, Wakabayashi H, Kurihara T, Fukushima H, Yamada T, Kawase M, Sohara Y, Tani S, Shirataki Y, Sakagami H, Satoh K, Nakashima H, Molnár A, Spengler G, Gyémánt N, Ugocsai K, Molnár J. Biological activity of barbados cherry (acerola fruits, fruit of Malpighia emarginata DC) extracts and fractions. Phytother Res. 2004 Mar;18(3):212-23.

Holy Basil (tulsi) (Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum tenuiflorum)

holy basil in Flightamins

Description, habitat, health benefits and traditional uses. Holy Basil (also called Tulsi, Ajaka, Albahaca Santa, Bai Gkaprow, Baranda, Basilic, Brinda, Kemangen, Tulasi, Manjari, etc) is a plant which originates from India, is grown on every continent and is actively employed in traditional medicine against diabetes, cancers, bronchitis, asthma, stress, infertility, anxiety, headache, stomach upset, heart disease, hypertension, the common cold, earache, fever, malaria, various infectious diseases (including flu, viral hepatitis and tuberculosis), mercury poisoning, bites of snakes, scorpions or insects.

Active ingredients. Amazing beneficial properties of tulsi is associated with the presence of eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, β-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid.

 

Key properties. Consuming tulsi-based products during travel could be beneficial to your body because the plant

  • provides antioxidants
  • supports healthy brain function
  • boosts immunity
  • reduces inflammation
  • may protect against fungal and bacterial infections
  • may support liver health 
  • soothes the stomach 
  • useful in minimising headaches 
  • may reduce fatigue, depression and anxiety
  • may support lung health 

Literature summary. Consuming the tulsi leaf extract could be beneficial for a health and a normal activity of human brain (1); it may provide an antioxidant defense against oxidative stress and protect from neuronal damages in brain (2), and may help to overcome fatigue stress (3). Due to its antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, tulsi could be effective for treating cardiovascular diseases including hypertension (4, 5), diabetes mellitus, cancer progression (5, 6, 7, 8), bronchitis, and infections; it may prevent oxidative stress in liver, and may help to healing gastric ulcer (5). Essential oils of tulsi are effective against bacteria (9) and fungi (10) and against malaria-producing pathogen (11).

References

  1. Sampath S, Mahapatra SC, Padhi MM, Sharma R, Talwar A. Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) leaf extract enhances specific cognitive parameters in healthy adult volunteers: A placebo controlled study. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015 Jan-Mar;59(1):69-77.

2.      Venuprasad MP, Hemanth Kumar K, Khanum F. Neuroprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum sanctum against H2O2 induced neuronal cell damage in SH-SY5Y cells via its antioxidative defence mechanism. Neurochem Res.2013 Oct;38(10):2190-200.3.      Zamin M. Ocimum sanctum may overcome fatigue stress. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011 Nov 1;14(21):1000-1.4.      Choudhury SS, Bashyam L, Manthapuram N, Bitla P, Kollipara P, Tetali SD. Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts attenuate human monocytic (THP-1) cell activation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 May 28;154(1):148-55.

  1. Kamyab AA, Eshraghian A. Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with newapplication. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2013 Dec;12(6):378-84.
  2. Dhandayuthapani S, Azad H, Rathinavelu A. Apoptosis Induction by Ocimum sanctum Extract in LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells. J Med Food. 2015 Jul;18(7):776-85.
  3. Kwak TK, Sohn EJ, Kim S, Won G, Choi JU, Jeong K, Jeong M, Kwon OS, Kim SH. Inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum on osteopontin mediated metastasis of NCI-H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Oct 27;14:419.

8.      Shimizu T, Torres MP, Chakraborty S, Souchek JJ, Rachagani S, Kaur S, Macha M,Ganti AK, Hauke RJ, Batra SK. Holy Basil leaf extract decreases tumorigenicity and metastasis of aggressive human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo: potential role in therapy. Cancer Lett. 2013 Aug 19;336(2):270-80.9.      Gupta A, Duhan J, Tewari S, Sangwan P, Yadav A, Singh G, Juneja R, Saini H. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum, Ocimum sanctum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis: apreliminary study. Int Endod J. 2013 Aug;46(8):775-83.10.    Khan A, Ahmad A, Xess I, Khan LA, Manzoor N. Ocimum sanctum essential oil inhibits virulence attributes in Candida albicans. Phytomedicine. 2014 Mar 15;21(4):448-52.11.    Venkatesalu V, Gopalan N, Pillai CR, Singh V, Chandrasekaran M, Senthilkumar A, Chandramouli N. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of some traditionally used medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitol Res. 2012 Jul;111(1):497-501.

 

Guava leaf (Psidium guajava)

guava leaf in Flightmamins

Description, habitat, health benefits and traditional uses. Guava (also called Amrood, Amrut Phala, Banjiro, Fan Shi Liu, Goiaba, Goiabeiro etc) is an evergreen shrub growing abundantly throughout the tropical and subtropical areas (Mexico, Central America, South America). It is now being grown in the tropics and subtropics of Africa, Southeast Asia, and South Asia, the Caribbean, etc. Guava leaves are used in traditional medicines for the treatment of cancer, inflammation, diarrhea, dysentery, gastritis, enteritis, stomachaches, indigestioncolic, diabetes, cold, cough, allergies, cataracts, high cholesterol, obesity, heart disease, scurvy etc.

Active ingredients. The most important compounds of the guava leaves include pyrogallol, palmitic acid, vitamin E, vitamin C, folic acid, guavinosides, gallocatechin, tannins, guajadial, psidial, psiguadials, nerolidiol, caryophyllene, beta bisabolene, p-selinene, aromandreno, beta sitosterol, leucocyanidins, and titerpenoides.

Key properties. Travelers may benefit from taking the guava extract, because the content of guava leaves

  • provides antioxidants
  • reduces inflammation
  • improves immunity
  • may reduce duration of bacterial and viral infections
  • may be useful in the treatment of dysentery and travellers diarrhea
  • may provide some protection against malaria 
  • maintains oral health/control dental bacterial plaque

Literature summary. It has been widely accepted that compounds of the guava leaf extract show high antioxidative activity (1, 2), some of these substances are even stronger antioxidants than vitamin C (1). According to various studies, this extract has anti-inflammatory (2, 3), anticancer (1, 3, 4), and hepatoprotective properties (5). The guava extract is able to attenuate some bacteria (6, 7). Saponins of  guava leaf  can inhibit HIV entry into the immune cells (8). The guava leaf extract could be effective for preventing and curing cholera (9), diarrhea (10), malaria (11, 12) and can be effectively employed for keeping oral hygiene and protecting teeth from the plaque bacteria (7).

References

1.      Feng XH, Wang ZH, Meng DL, Li X. Cytotoxic and antioxidant constituents from the leaves of Psidium guajava. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2015;25(10):2193-8.2.      Fernandes MR, Azzolini AE, Martinez ML, Souza CR, Lucisano-Valim YM, Oliveira WP. Assessment of antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts of Psidium guajava leaves by DPPH and chemiluminescence inhibition in human neutrophils. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:382891.3.      Ashraf A, Sarfraz RA, Rashid MA, Mahmood A, Shahid M, Noor N. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antitumor, anticancer and cytotoxic effects of Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Pharm Biol. 2016 Oct;54(10):1971-81.4.      Rizzo LY, Longato GB, Ruiz AL, Tinti SV, Possenti A, Vendramini-Costa DB, Sartoratto A, Figueira GM, Silva FL, Eberlin MN, Souza TA, Murakami MT, Rizzo E, Foglio MA, Kiessling F, Lammers T, Carvalho JE. In vitro, in vivo and in silico analysis of the anticancer and estrogen- like activity of guava leaf extracts.Curr Med Chem. 2014;21(20):2322-30. 5.      Li CJ, Ma J, Sun H, Zhang D, Zhang DM. Guajavadimer A, a Dimeric Caryophyllene-Derived Meroterpenoid with a New Carbon Skeleton from the Leaves of Psidium guajava. Org Lett. 2016 Jan 15;18(2):168-71.6.      Ghosh R, Tiwary BK, Kumar A, Chakraborty R. Guava leaf extract inhibits quorum-sensing and Chromobacterium violaceum induced lysis of human hepatoma cells: whole transcriptome analysis reveals differential gene expression. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 17;9(9):e107703.7.      Fathilah AR, Rahim ZH, Othman Y, Yusoff M. Bacteriostatic effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on dental plaque bacteria. Pak J Biol Sci. 2009 Mar 15;12(6):518-21.8.      Mao QC, Zhou YC, Li RM, Hu YP, Liu SW, Li XJ. [Inhibition of HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion by saponin fraction from Psidium guajava leaf]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2010 Nov;33(11):1751-4. 9.      Rahim N, Gomes DJ, Watanabe H, Rahman SR, Chomvarin C, Endtz HP, Alam M. Antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava leaf and bark against multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae: implication for cholera control. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2010 Jul;63(4):271-4.10.    Birdi T, Daswani P, Brijesh S, Tetali P, Natu A, Antia N. Newer insights into the mechanism of action of Psidium guajava L. leaves in infectious diarrhoea. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Jun 28;10:33.11.    Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A. Repellent activity of selected plant essential oils against the malarial fever mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Trop Biomed. 2007 Dec;24(2):71-5.12.    Arrey Tarkang P, Franzoi KD, Lee S, Lee E, Vivarelli D, Freitas-Junior L, Liuzzi M, Nolé T, Ayong LS, Agbor GA, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN. In vitro antiplasmodial activities and synergistic combinations of differential solvent extracts of the polyherbal product, Nefang. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:835013.

Amla (Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus emblica)

Amla in Flightamins

Description, habitat, health benefits and traditional uses. Amla (also called Indian Gooseberries, Aamalaki, Amblabaum, Aonla, Aovla, Arbre de Malacca, Dhatriphala, Emblic, Emblica etc) is a tree that grows in India, the Middle East, and some southeast Asian countries. Amla fruits have been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years to cure high cholesterol, atherosclerosis, diabetes, pancreatitis, cancer, upset stomach, eye problems, joint pain, diarrhea, dysentery, osteoarthritis, obesity, any pain, inflammation and infection due to the body's injury.

Active ingredients. Amla fruits contain high amounts of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), ellagitannins (emblicanin A, emblicanin B, punigluconin and pedunculagin), punicafolin, phyllanemblinin A, phyllanemblin, flavonoids, kaempferol, ellagic acid and gallic acid.

Key properties. Taking amla products during your travel and regular life is a good idea because this plant

  • provides antioxidants
  • may protect from viral and bacterial infections
  • may reduce the duration of diarrhea and dysentery
  • may reduce pain and inflammation
  • may reduces blood cholesterol
  • supports oral hygiene
  • supports healthy libido

Literature summary. Amla is considered as a potent functional food with anti-oxidant (1, 2), antimicrobial (3, 4), antiviral (5) anti-diabetic and cancer-preventive applications (1, 2, 5). The known component of amla glochicoccinoside D displayed potent activity against influenza A virus and hand, foot and mouth viruses (5). Using an oral supplementation of the standardized amla extract is beneficial for preventing cardiovascular diseases in overweight and obese adults from the US population (6). According to Sansalone 2016 study (7), patients affected by premature ejaculation may significantly benefit from the combined therapy with using amla and other herbal extracts. According to the literature review, amla as a part of plant-based remedy or a mouthwash can be effectively used to manage dental caries (3, 4) and dental plaque (3), gingival and periodontal diseases, against oral candida species (4) and Streptococcus mutans living the dental plaque (3). Amla-based  shampoo is more effective for a head lice treatment than chemical shampoos; the amla is safe for children and there is no side-effect after application (8). Moreover, amla oil contains various fatty acids which are toxic for hair and skin parasites (dermatophytes) (9). 

References

1.      Guo X, Ni J, Liu X, Xue J, Wang X. Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit extract induces chromosomal instability and suppresses necrosis in human colon cancer cells. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2013;83(5):271-80.2.      Zhao T, Sun Q, Marques M, Witcher M. Anticancer Properties of Phyllanthus emblica (Indian Gooseberry). Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:950890.3.      Jain I, Jain P, Bisht D, Sharma A, Srivastava B, Gupta N. Use of traditional Indian plants in the inhibition of caries-causing bacteria--Streptococcus mutans.Braz Dent J. 2015 Mar-Apr;26(2):110-5.4.      Shanbhag VK. Triphala in prevention of dental caries and as an antimicrobial in oral cavity- a review. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2015;15(2): 89-97.5.      Lv JJ, Yu S, Xin Y, Cheng RR, Zhu HT, Wang D, Yang CR, Xu M, Zhang YJ. Anti-viral and cytotoxic norbisabolane sesquiterpenoid glycosides from Phyllanthus emblica and their absolute configurations. Phytochemistry. 2015 Sep;117:123-34.6.      Khanna S, Das A, Spieldenner J, Rink C, Roy S. Supplementation of a standardized extract from Phyllanthus emblica improves cardiovascular risk factors and platelet aggregation in overweight/class-1 obese adults. J Med Food.2015 Apr;18(4):415-20.7.      Sansalone S, Russo GI, Mondaini N, Cantiello F, Antonini G, Cai T. A combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts is able to improve sexual quality of life in patient with premature ejaculation. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2016 Oct 5;88(3):171-176.8.      Soonwera M. Efficacy of herbal shampoo base on native plant against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) in vitro and in vivo in Thailand. Parasitol Res. 2014 Sep;113(9):3241-50. 9.      Garg AP, Müller J. Inhibition of growth of dermatophytes by Indian hair oils. Mycoses. 1992 Nov-Dec;35(11-12):363-9.

 

Dunaliella Salina (Dunaliella salina)

Dunaliella Salina in Flightamins

Description, habitat, health benefits and traditional uses. Dunaliella salina is a green one-celled microalga which usually lives in sea salt fields as salted brines, salt evaporation ponds, and hypersaline lakes. It is one of the promising microalgae consumed as food and medicine for many years. Dunaliella salina is able to create large amount of carotenoids (beta carotene, alfa carotens etc). Surprisingly, growing this microalga under more harsh conditions of saline environment enhances its carotene production and oxidative activity! Due to its amazing properties, Dunaliella salina has been used for the commercial production of beta carotene during last 50 years.

Active ingredients. Positive effects of consuming the products made with using Dunaliella salina  is a result of high amounts of antioxidants in this amazing microalga. Dunaliella salina produces beta carotene, alpha carotene, lutein, lycopene, omega-3 fatty acid, glycerol etc.   

Key properties. Consuming products made from Dunaliella salina during your travel can beneficial for your health, because the content of this microalga 

  • provides antioxidants
  • protects the ears against ear infection
  • may provide protection against bacterial infections
  • stimulates immunity
  • reduces inflammation
  • may reduce the risk of certain cancers

Literature summary. Dunaliella salina has been employed as a source of alfa- and beta-carotenes, the well known antioxidants (1). The extract of this microalga has antimicrobial properties against a variety of bacteria that are responsible for ear infection (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and Klebsiella species) (2). Beta carotine obtained from Dunaliella may provide a protection against mutations in cells of the body (3). Dunaliella salina as an alternate source of omega-3 fatty acids; treatment with this algal omega-3 fatty acid concentrate provides anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects (4). Essential oils extracted from Dunaliella  salina  demonstrates anticancer effects (1, 5), particularly against cells of brain tumors (5).

References

1.     Singh P, Baranwal M, Reddy SM. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of carotene produced by Dunaliella salina under stress. Pharm Biol. 2016 Oct;54(10):2269-75. 2.     Pane G, Cacciola G, Giacco E, Mariottini GL, Coppo E. Assessment of the Antimicrobial Activity of Algae Extracts on Bacteria Responsible of External Otitis. Mar Drugs. 2015 Oct 20;13(10):6440-52.3.     Ma GJ, Xue KX, Wu JZ, Yuan S, Qin HL. [Antimutagenic effects of beta-carotene from Dunaliella salina]. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1998 May;19(3):282-4.4.     Chitranjali T, Anoop Chandran P, Muraleedhara Kurup G. Omega-3 fatty acid concentrate from Dunaliella salina possesses anti-inflammatory properties including blockade of NF-κB nuclear translocation. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2015 Feb;37(1):81-9.5.     Atasever-Arslan B, Yilancioglu K, Bekaroglu MG, Taskin E, Altinoz E, Cetiner S. Cytotoxic effect of extract from Dunaliella salina against SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2015 Apr;34(2):201-7.

 

Astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus, Astragalus mongholicus)

Astragalus in Flightamins

Description, habitat, health benefits and traditional uses. Astragalus (also called Astragale, Astragali, Astragalo, Mongolian Milkvetch, Beg Kei, Bei Qi, Buck Qi, Chinese Astragalus, Huang Qi etc) is a native plant of regions with moderate climate in the Northern Hemisphere (Eastern China, Mongolia and Korea). There are more than 2,000 species of astragalus, it is the highest number of species among plants! The root, a medicinal part of astragalus, is usually harvested from 4-year-old plants. Several species of astragalus are very toxic; they contain the alkaloid swainsonine, which may poison livestock. Astragalus is used in traditional medicine for more over 20 centuries to cure the common cold, upper respiratory infections, allergies, fibromyalgia, anemia, chronic fatigue syndrome, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, diabetes, kidney disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, HIV/AIDS etc. Astragalus can boost the immunity, to speed wound healing, to protect the liver, and to fight bacteria and viruses. The plant is often employed in combination with other herbal remedies.

Active ingredients. Astragalus root contains saponins (cycloastragenol), polysaccharides, triterpenoids (astragalosides), isoflavones (kumatakenin, calycosin and formononetin) along with their glycosides and malonates.

Key properties. Astragalus can be used as a part of herbal remedies for traveler to

  • protects the body from the negative effects of stress
  • strengthens immune function
  • may have antibacterial properties
  • provides antioxidants
  • may reduce reduces fatigue or lack of appetite
  • may help to slow ageing
  • may reduce duration of or susceptibility to catching colds
  • may support healthy liver function 
  • lowers blood sugar
  • reduces symptoms of allergic rhinitis and hay fever

Literature summary. There is some preliminary evidence to suggest that astragalus, either alone or in combination with other herbs, may have potential benefits for the immune system, heart, and liver, and as an adjunctive therapy for cancer (1, 2). Astragalus root extract can improve the immune response in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2). Astragalus polysaccharides can reduce toxic consequences of chemotherapy to heart (3) and nervous system (4) and improve their functions. Astragalus as an addition to conventional therapies may help in reducing proteinuria (protein in urine) and increasing haemoglobin and serum albumin (blood proteins) in patients with chronic kidney diseases (5)

References

  1. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/astragalus

2.      Jiang D, Wang X, Su Q, Jiang S, Yuan F, Zhang C, Gong F, Dong Q, Shi J, Chen B. Milkvetch root improves immune function in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Biomed Mater Eng. 2015;26 Suppl 1:S2113-21. 3.      Zhang J, Gu JY, Chen ZS, Xing KC, Sun B. Astragalus polysaccharide suppresses palmitate-induced apoptosis in human cardiac myocytes: the role of Nrf1 and antioxidant response. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015 Mar 1;8(3):2515-24.4.      Di Cesare Mannelli L, Zanardelli M, Bartolucci G, Karioti A, Bilia AR, Vannacci A, Mugelli A, Ghelardini C. In Vitro Evidence for the Use of Astragali Radix Extracts as Adjuvant against Oxaliplatin-Induced Neurotoxicity. Planta Med.2015 Aug;81(12-13):1045-55.5.      Zhang HW, Lin ZX, Xu C, Leung C, Chan LS. Astragalus (a traditional Chinese medicine) for treating chronic kidney disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Oct 22;(10):CD008369