Supporting Research for Herbs in Flightamins
Ancient Wisdom Meets Nutritional Science.
Flightamins was created by an Aussie nutritionist and Chinese medicine practitioner.
American Ginseng- Panax quinquefolius
American Ginseng is a herb used in Chinese and Native American medicine to nourish the body and support energy and immunity. Research suggests that it may be useful to improve fatigue, especially in people with chronic illness. It may also improve short term memory, accuracy and response time. American Ginseng may also reduce the incidence and prevalence of respiratory infections. A review of five trials of 747 subjects found that American ginseng reduced the incidence of colds and flu by 25% compared to placebo.
- Barton DL, Liu H, Dakhil SR, et al. Wisconsin Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) to improve cancer-related fatigue: a randomized, double-blind trial, N07C2. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105:1230-8.
- Lee, S. T., Chu, K., Sim, J. Y., Heo, J. H., and Kim, M. Panax ginseng enhances cognitive performance in Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis.Assoc.Disord. 2008;22:222-226.
- Chen EY, Hui CL. HT1001, a proprietary North American ginseng extract, improves working memory in schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Phytother Res. 2012;26:1166-72
- Seida JK., Durec T., Kuhle S. North American (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Preparations for Prevention of the Common Cold in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine . 2011; ID2822151
- McElhaney JE, Simor AE, McNeil S, Predy GN. Efficacy and safety of CVT-E002, a proprietary extract of panax quinquefolius in the prevention of respiratory infections in influenza-vaccinated community-dwelling adults: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. Influenza Res Treat 2011;2011:759051
Amla- Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus emblica
Amla is considered as a potent functional food with anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-diabetic and potentially cancer-preventive applications. The known component of amla glochicoccinoside D displayed potent activity against influenza A virus and hand, foot and mouth viruses. It may be helpful in supporting cardiovascular and sexual performance.
- Guo X., Ni J., Liu X., Xue J., Wang X., Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit extract induces chromosomal instability and suppresses necrosis in human coloncancer cells. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2013;83(5):271-80.2.
- Zhao T., Sun Q., Marques M., Witcher M. Anticancer Properties of Phyllanthus emblica (Indian Gooseberry). Oxid Med Cell Longev.2015;2015:950890.3.
- Jain I., Jain P., Bisht D., Sharma A., Srivastava B., Gupta N. Use of traditional Indian plants in the inhibition of cavities-causing bacteria streptococcusmutans. Braz Dent J. 2015 Mar-Apr;26(2):110-5.4.
- Lv JJ., Yu S., Xin Y., Cheng RR., Zhu HT., Wang D., Yang CR., et al. Anti-viral and cytotoxic norbisabolane sesquiterpenoid glycosidesfrom Phyllanthus emblica and their absolute configurations. Phytochemistry. 2015 Sep;117:123-34.6.
- Khanna S., Das A., Spieldenner J., Rink C., Roy S. Supplementation of a standardized extract from Phyllanthus emblica improves cardiovascular riskfactors and platelet aggregation in overweight/class-1 obese adults. J Med Food.2015 Apr;18(4):415-20.7.
- Sansalone S., Russo GI., Mondaini N., Cantiello F., Antonini G., Cai T. A combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthusemblica extracts is able to improve sexual quality of life in patient with premature ejaculation. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2016 Oct 5;88(3):171-176.8.
Ashwagandha- Withania somnifera
Ashwagandha is used traditionally in Indian Ayuvedic medicine for promoting physical and mental vitality. It appears to work as an adaptogen to balance the body to reduce fatigue and overcome exhaustion related to chronic exposure to stressful situations. It is anti-inflammatory, and supportive of the adrenal and digestive systems. It may also increase general wellbeing, physical strength and sexual function.
- Zameer F., Naidu A., Dhananjaya BL., Hegdekatte R. Evaluating the inhibitory potential of Withania somnifera on platelet aggregation and inflammation enzymes: An in vitro and in silico study. Pharm Biol. 2016 Sep;54(9):1936-41.
- Gambhir L., Checker R., Sharma D., Thoh M., Patil A., Degani M., Gota V., Sandur SK. Thiol dependent NF-κB suppression and inhibition of T-cell
mediated adaptive immune responses by a naturally occurring steroidal lactone Withaferin A. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015 Dec 1;289(2): 297-312.
- Grunz-Borgmann E., Mossine V., Fritsche K., Parrish AR. Ashwagandha attenuates TNF-α- and LPS-induced NF-κB activation and CCL2 and CCL5 gene expression in NRK-52E cells. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Dec 15;15:434.
- Kim G., Kim TH., Kang MJ., Choi JA., Pack DY, et al. Inhibitory effect of
withaferin A on Helicobacter pylori-induced IL-8 production and NF-κB activation in gastric epithelial cells. Mol Med Rep. 2016 Jan;13(1):967-72.
- Halder B., Singh S., Thakur SS. Withania somnifera Root Extract Has Potent Cytotoxic Effect against Human Malignant Melanoma Cells. PLoS One. 2015 Sep 3;10(9):e0137498.
- Dar PA., Singh LR., Kamal MA., Dar TA. Unique Medicinal Properties of Withania somnifera: Phytochemical Constituents and Protein Component.
Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22(5):535-40.
- Pandit S., Cai JN., Song KY., Jeon JG. Identification of anti-biofilm components in Withania somnifera and their effect on virulence of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. J Appl Microbiol. 2015 Aug;119(2):571-81.
- Wankhede S., Langade D., Joshi K., Sinha SR., Bhattacharyya S. Examining the effect of Withania somnifera supplementation on muscle strength and
recovery: a randomized controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Nov 25;12:43.
- Dongre S., Langade D., Bhattacharyya S. Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Improving Sexual Function in Women: A Pilot Study. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:284154.
Annatto- Bixa Orellana
- Ulbricht C., Windsor RC., Brigham A., Bryan JK., Conquer J et al. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Annatto (Bixa orellana L.) by the National Standard Research Collaboration. Journal of Dietary Supplements 2012; (9), 1, 57-77.
- Galindo-Cuspinera V., Westhoff DC., Rankin SA. Antimicorbial properties of commercial annatto extracts against selected pathogenic, lactic acid and spoilage microorganisms.J Food Prot. 2003 Jun; 66 (6), 1074-8
- Kiokias S., Gordon MH. Antioxidant properties of annatto carotenoids. Food Chem. 2003; 83, (4), 523-529
Curry Leaves- Murraya koenigii
Curry leaves have been used traditionally due in Ayuvedic medicine and may be helpful to support immunity, wound healing, glucose and cholesterol levels and neurological function.
- Priya M, Pallaiyan BB., Selvaraj N. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant profile of essential oil from Murraya koenigii (L.) leaves. Avicenna journal of phytomedicine 4, no. 3 (2014): 200.
- Thirukanthan C., Segaran C., Effendy M., Wahid A., Ramasamy P.,Charles S. Vairappan CS et al. Efficacy of carbazole alkaloids, essential oil and extract of Murraya koenigii in enhancing subcutaneous wound healing in rats. Molecules 17, no. 12 (2012): 14449-14463.
- Jing-Tian X., Chang WT., Wang CZ., Sangeeta R., Mehendale., Jing Li., et al. Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.) reduces blood cholesterol and glucose levels in ob/ob mice. The American journal of Chinese medicine 34, no. 02 (2006): 279-284
- Subramanian A., Subramanian P., and Subramanian S P., Beneficial effects of Murraya koenigii leaves on antioxidant defense system and ultra structural changes of pancreatic β-cells in experimental diabetes in rats. Chemico-Biological Interactions 165, no. 2 (2007): 155-164
- Vasudevan., Mani., and Milind Parle. Antiamnesic potential of Murraya koenigii leaves. Phytotherapy Research 23, no. 3 (2009): 308-316.
Elderberry- Sambucus nigra
According to the Tiralongo 2016 study, elderberry extract significantly
reduced the duration and severity of the common cold in air travelers .
Elderberry extract possesses antimicrobial activity against bacteria (Streptococcuspyogenes, Streptococci, Branhamella catarrhalis) and human pathogenic influenza viruses. The Elderberry extract possesses elevated polyphenolic content, and its antioxidant capacity may enable it to protect neuronal cells of the central nervous system and digestive system against oxidizing agents and stress. Agglutinin a compound contained in elderberries may demonstrate anticancer activity against melanoma cells.
- Tiralongo E., Wee SS, Lea RA. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air- Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Nutrients. 2016 Mar 24;8(4):182.
- Krawitz C., Mraheil MA., Stein M., Imirzalioglu C., Domann E., Pleschka S., Hain T. Inhibitory activity of a standardised elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Feb 25;11:16.
- Spagnuolo C., Napolitano M., Tedesco I., Moccia S., Milito A., Russo GL. Neuroprotective Role of Natural Polyphenols. Curr Top Med Chem. 2016;16(17):1943-50.
- Olejnik A., Olkowicz M., Kowalska K., Rychlik J., Dembczyński R., Myszka K., Juzwa W., Białas W., Moyer MP. Gastrointestinal digested Sambucus nigra L. fruit extract protects in vitro cultured human colon cells against oxidative stress. Food Chem. 2016 Apr 15;197(Pt A):648-57.
- Kolasińska E., Przybyło M., Janik M., Lityńska A. Towards understanding the role of sialylation in melanoma progression. Acta Biochim Pol. 2016;63(3):533-41.
Gotu Kola Centella asiatica
Gotu Kola is beneficial to support cognitive function and memory. It may improve anxiety and stress particularly from sleep deprivation and may assist in relieving congestion from colds and flu. Gotu kola may improve blood flow, circulation and support vein health. May also improve wound healing and increase collagen production.
- Farhana, KM., Malueka, RG., Wibowo S., & Gofir A. (2016). Effectiveness of Gotu Kola Extract 750 mg and 1000 mg Compared with Folic Acid 3 mg in Improving Vascular Cognitive Impairment after Stroke. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2016, 2795915. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/2795915
- Chanana P., Kumar A.. Possible Involvement of Nitric Oxide Modulatory Mechanisms in the Neuroprotective Effect of Centella asiatica Against Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety Like Behaviour, Oxidative Damage and Neuroinflammation. Phytother Res. 2016 Apr;30(4):671-80. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5582. Epub 2016 Feb 5.
- Lokanathan, Y., Omar, N., Ahmad Puzi, N. N., Saim, A., & Hj Idrus, R. (2016). Recent Updates in Neuroprotective and Neuroregenerative Potential of Centella asiatica. The Malaysian journal of medical sciences : MJMS, 23(1), 4–14.
- Cesarone MR1, Incandela L, De Sanctis MT, Belcaro G, Geroulakos G, Griffin M, Lennox A, Di Renzo AD, Cacchio M, Bucci M. Flight microangiopathy in medium- to long-distance flights: prevention of edema and microcirculation alterations with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica. Angiology. 2001 Oct;52 Suppl 2:S33-7.
- Arpaia MR1, Ferrone R, Amitrano M, Nappo C, Leonardo G, del Guercio R. Effects of Centella asiatica extract on mucopolysaccharide metabolism in subjects with varicose veins. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1990;10(4):229-33.
- Cauffield JS1, Forbes HJ. Dietary supplements used in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders.Lippincotts Prim Care Pract. 1999 May-Jun;3(3):290-304.
- Wiesława Bylka, Paulina Znajdek-Awiżeń, Elżbieta Studzińska-Sroka, and Małgorzata Brzezińska. Centella asiatica in cosmetology. Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2013 Feb; 30(1): 46–49.
- Yang B, Xu Y, Hu Y, Luo Y, Lu X, Tsui CK, Lu L, Liang X. Madecassic Acid protects against hypoxia-induced oxidative stress in retinal microvascular endothelial cells via ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Dec;84:845-852.
- Fong LY, Ng CT, Cheok ZL, Mohd Moklas MA, Hakim MN, Ahmad Z. Barrier protective effect of asiatic acid in TNF-α-induced activation of human aortic endothelial cells. Phytomedicine. 2016 Feb 15;23(2):191-9.
- Ma RJ, Liu ZH, Zi CT, Gao W, Dong FW, Yang L, Li JY, Zhou J, Hu JM. Oleanane-type triterpene saponins from Hydrocotyle nepalensis. Fitoterapia. 2016 Apr;110:66-71.
- Gray NE, Sampath H, Zweig JA, Quinn JF, Soumyanath A. Centella asiatica Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;45(3):933-46.
Guava Leaf- Psidium guajava
Compounds of the guava leaf extract show high anti oxidative activity. Guava leaf is anti-inflammatory and may have anticancer and hepatoprotective properties. The guava extract is able to attenuate some bacteria. Saponins of
guava leaf can inhibit HIV entry into the immune cells. The guava leaf extract could be supportive against cholera and malaria.
- Feng XH., Wang ZH., Meng DL., Li X. Cytotoxic and antioxidant constituents from the leaves of Psidium guajava. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2015;25(10):2193-8.
- Fernandes MR., Azzolini AE., Martinez ML., Souza CR., Lucisano-Valim YM., Oliveira WP. Assessment of antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts of Psidium guajava leaves by DPPH and chemiluminescence inhibition in human neutrophils. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:382891.
- Ashraf A., Sarfraz RA., Rashid MA., Mahmood A., Shahid M., Noor N. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antitumor, anticancer and cytotoxic effects of Psidium guajava leaf. Pharm Biol. 2016 Oct;54(10):1971-81.
- Rizzo E., Foglio MA., Kiessling F., Lammers T., Carvalho JE. In vitro, in vivo and in silico analysis of the anticancer and estrogen- like activity of guava leaf extracts.Curr Med Chem. 2014;21(20):2322-30.
- Li CJ., Ma J., Sun H., Zhang D., Zhang DM. Guajavadimer A, a Dimeric Caryophyllene-Derived Meroterpenoid with a New Carbon Skeleton from the Leaves of Psidium guajava. Org Lett. 2016 Jan 15;18(2):168-71.
- Ghosh R., Tiwary BK., Kumar A., Chakraborty R. Guava leaf extract inhibits quorum-sensing and Chromobacterium violaceum induced lysis of human hepatoma cells: whole transcriptome analysis reveals differential gene expression. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 17;9(9):e107703.
- Mao QC., Zhou YC., Li RM., Hu YP., Liu SW., Li XJ. [Inhibition of HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion by saponin fraction from Psidium guajava leaf]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2010 Nov;33(11):1751-4.
- Rahim N., Gomes DJ., Watanabe H., Rahman SR., Chomvarin C., Endtz HP., Alam M. Antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava leaf and bark against multi drug-resistant Vibrio cholerae: implication for cholera control. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2010 Jul;63(4):271-4.
- Birdi T., Daswani P., Brijesh S., Tetali P., Natu A., Antia N. Newer insights into the mechanism of action of Psidium guajava L. leaves in infectious diarrhoea. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Jun 28;10:33.
- Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A. Repellent activity of selected plant essential oils against the malarial fever mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Trop Biomed. 2007 Dec;24(2):71-5.
- Arrey Tarkang P., Franzoi KD., Lee S., Lee E., Vivarelli D., Freitas-Junior L., Liuzzi M., Nolé T., Ayong LS., et al. In vitro antiplasmodial activities and synergistic combinations of differential solvent extracts of the polyherbal product, Nefang. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:835013.
Holy Basil- Tulsi
Consuming the tulsi leaf extract could be beneficial for a health and a normal activity of the human brain and it may provide an antioxidant defence against oxidative stress and protect from neuronal damage. Its adaptogenic nature means it may help to overcome fatigue and stress, due to anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties. Holy Basil could be helpful in treatment of infections, it may prevent oxidative stress in the liver and help to heal gastric ulcers. May support healthy digestion and have anti-cancer benefits.
- Sampath S, Mahapatra SC, Padhi MM, Sharma R, Talwar A. Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) leaf extract enhances specific cognitive parameters in healthy adult volunteers: A placebo controlled study. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015 Jan-Mar;59(1):69-77.
- Venuprasad MP, Hemanth Kumar K, Khanum F. Neuroprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum sanctum against H2O2 induced neuronal cell damage in SH-SY5Y cells via its antioxidative defence mechanism. Neurochem Res.2013 Oct;38(10):2190-200.
- Zamin M. Ocimum sanctum may overcome fatigue stress. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011 Nov 1;14(21):1000-1.
- Choudhury SS, Bashyam L, Manthapuram N, Bitla P, Kollipara P, Tetali SD. Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts attenuate human monocytic (THP-1) cell activation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 May 28;154(1):148-55.
- Kamyab AA, Eshraghian A. Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2013 Dec;12(6):378-84.
- Dhandayuthapani S, Azad H, Rathinavelu A. Apoptosis Induction by Ocimum sanctum Extract in LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells. J Med Food. 2015 Jul;18(7):776-85.
- Kwak TK, Sohn EJ, Kim S, Won G, Choi JU, Jeong K, Jeong M, Kwon OS, Kim SH. Inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum on osteopontin mediated metastasis of NCI-H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Oct 27;14:419.
- Shimizu T, Torres MP, Chakraborty S, Souchek JJ, Rachagani S, Kaur S, Macha M,Ganti AK, Hauke RJ, Batra SK. Holy Basil leaf extract decreases tumorigenicity and metastasis of aggressive human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo: potential role in therapy. Cancer Lett. 2013 Aug 19;336(2):270-80.
- Gupta A, Duhan J, Tewari S, Sangwan P, Yadav A, Singh G, Juneja R, Saini H. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum, Ocimum sanctum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis: apreliminary study. Int Endod J. 2013 Aug;46(8):775-83.
- Khan A, Ahmad A, Xess I, Khan LA, Manzoor N. Ocimum sanctum essential oil inhibits virulence attributes in Candida albicans. Phytomedicine. 2014 Mar 15;21(4):448-52.
- Venkatesalu V, Gopalan N, Pillai CR, Singh V, Chandrasekaran M, Senthilkumar A, Chandramouli N. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of some traditionally used medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitol Res. 2012 Jul;111(1):497-501.
Lemons may support immunity and provide cardiovascular protection. Supports the absorption of iron.
- Chanet A, Milenkovic D, Manach C, Mazur A, Morand C. Citrus flavanones: what is their role in cardiovascular protection? J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Sep 12;60(36):8809-22. doi: 10.1021/jf300669s. Epub 2012 Jun 1.
- Assini JM1, Mulvihill EE, Huff MW. Curr Opin Lipidol. Citrus flavonoids and lipid metabolism.2013 Feb;24(1):34-40. doi: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e32835c07fd.
- Lv X., Zhao S., Ning Z., Zeng H., Shu Y., et al. Citrus fruits as a treasure trove of active natural metabolites that potentially provide benefits for human health. Chem Cent J. 2015 Dec 24;9:68. doi: 10.1186/s13065-015-0145-9. eCollection 2015.
- Ballot D, Baynes RD, Bothwell TH, Gillooly M, MacFarlane BJ, MacPhail AP, Lyons G, Derman DP, Bezwoda WR, Torrance JD, et al. The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal. Br J Nutr. 1987 May;57(3):331-43.
- Péneau S1, Dauchet L, Vergnaud AC, Estaquio C, Kesse-Guyot E, Bertrais S, Latino-Martel P, Hercberg S, Galan P. Relationship between iron status and dietary fruit and vegetables based on their vitamin C and fiber content. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1298-305.
Nut Grass Rhizome- Cyperus Rotundus
Nut grass rhizome is used to support healthy digestive function. It contains beneficial antioxidants due to polyphenol content and may exhibit anti-microbial and anti allergic activity.
- Sivapalan, Sri Ranjani. “Medicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Cyperus rotundus Linn-A Review.” International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 3, no. 5 (2013): 1-8.
- Singh N, Kulshrestha VK, Gupta MB and Bhargava K P, A pharmacological study of Cyperus rotundus, Indian J Med, Res, 1970,58, 103-109
- Uddin, S. J., K. Mondal, J. A. Shilpi, and M. T. Rahman. “Antidiarrhoeal activity of Cyperus rotundus.” Fitoterapia 77, no. 2 (2006): 134-136.
- Ashok, D. Ramteke, P. Gandhi Sonali, B. Jivan Thombre, and Snehal Saurkar. “Clinical evaluation of anti-oxidant activity of musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn.) with special reference to obesity (sthaulya).” International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research 2, no. 2 (2015).
- Sharma, Anjana, Rani Verma, and Padmini Ramteke. “Cyperus rotundus: a potential novel source of therapeutic compound against urinary tract pathogens.” Journal of Herbal Medicine 4, no. 2 (2014): 74-82.
- Nagulendran, K. R., S. Velavan, R. Mahesh, and V. Hazeena Begum. “In vitro antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic content of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes.” Journal of Chemistry4, no. 3 (2007): 440-449.
- Parekh, Jigna, and Sumitra Chanda. “In-vitro antimicrobial activities of extracts of Launaea procumbens roxb.(Labiateae), Vitis vinifera l.(Vitaceae) and Cyperus rotundus l.(Cyperaceae.” African Journal of Biomedical Research 9, no. 2 (2006).
- Jin, Jeong Ho, Dong-Ung Lee, Yeong Shik Kim, and Hyun Pyo Kim. “Anti-allergic activity of sesquiterpenes from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus.” Archives of Pharmacal research 34, no. 2 (2011): 223-228.p
Pine Bark- Cortex Pinus
Bioflavonoid substances in pine bark extract called proanthocyanins
may possess antioxidant and anti-tumour properties. Pine bark may improve cognitive function and oxidative stress and improve athletic performance. Pine bark may improve skin quality and provide protection against sun damage and may support sexual function and improve sperm quality. Pine bark may also reduce blood sugar levels and improve lipid profile in metabolic syndrome.
- Feng J, Zhang XL, Li YY, Cui YY, Chen YH. Pinus massoniana Bark Extract: Structure-Activity Relationship and Biomedical Potentials. Am J Chin Med. 2016;44(8):1559-1577.
- Belcaro G, Dugall M, Ippolito E, Hu S, Saggino A, Feragalli B. The COFU3 Study. Improvement in cognitive function, attention, mental performance with Pycnogenol® in healthy subjects (55-70) with high oxidative stress. J Neurosurg Sci. 2015 Dec;59(4):437-46.
- Grether-Beck S, Marini A, Jaenicke T, Krutmann J. French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) Effects on HumanSkin: Clinical and Molecular Evidence. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2016;29(1):13-7.
- Kobori Y, Suzuki K, Iwahata T, Shin T, Sadaoka Y, Sato R, Nishio K, Yagi H, Arai G, Soh S, Okada H, Strong JM, Rohdewald P. Improvement of seminal quality and sexual function of men with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia syndrome following supplementation with L-arginine and Pycnogenol®. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2015 Sep 30;87(3):190-3.
- Gulati OP. Pycnogenol® in Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. Phytother Res. 2015 Jul;29(7):949-68.
Rhodiola- Rhodiola Rosea
Rhodiola is a herb traditionally used for its ability to promote physical and cognitive stamina and vitality. It contains a natural chemical called called salidroside, which exhibits antiviral activity and inhibits viral protein production and boosts immunity. Rhodiola is an adaptogen and helps to reduce fatigue and exhaustion despite long term exposure to stressful situations. helping to reduce fatigue and exhaustion resulting from exposure to prolonged stressful situations. Rhodiola supports a healthy nervous system, improves mood and may be neuroprotective and promote neuroplasticity. The rhodiola extracts (containing 3% salidroside, or 1% salidroside and 3% rosavines) are able to significantly change methabolism in human fat cells.
- Chuang ML, Wu TC, Wang YT, Wang YC, Tsao TC, Wei JC, Chen CY, Lin IF. Adjunctive Treatment with Rhodiola Crenulata in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease--A Randomized Placebo Controlled Double Blind Clinical Trial.PLoS One. 2015 Jun 22;10(6):e0128142.
- Sharma N, Mishra KP, Ganju L. Salidroside exhibits anti-dengue virus activity by upregulating host innate immune factors. Arch Virol. 2016 Dec;161(12):3331-3344.
- Pomari E, Stefanon B, Colitti M. Effects of Two Different Rhodiola rosea Extracts on Primary Human Visceral Adipocytes. Molecules. 2015 May 11;20(5):8409-28.
- Lin KT, Hsu SW, Lai FY, Chang TC, Shi LS, Lee SY. Rhodiola crenulata extract regulates hepatic glycogen and lipid metabolism via activation of the AMPK pathway. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 May 17;16:127.
- Thu OK, Spigset O, Nilsen OG, Hellum B. Effect of commercial Rhodiola rosea on CYP enzyme activity in humans. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Mar;72(3):295-300.
- Cropley M, Banks AP, Boyle J. The Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. Extract on Anxiety, Stress, Cognition and Other Mood Symptoms. Phytother Res. 2015 Dec;29(12):1934-9.
- Mao JJ, Xie SX, Zee J, Soeller I, Li QS, Rockwell K, Amsterdam JD. Rhodiola rosea versus sertraline for major depressive disorder: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Phytomedicine. 2015 Mar 15;22(3):394-9.Supporting Research
Siberian Ginseng Eleutherococcus senticosus
Siberian ginseng may reduce the severity and duration of upper respiratory infections and sinusitis. May support immunity against herpes simplex 2 and has shown broad antiviral activity. As an adaptogen it is beneficial in protecting against stress and reduction of fatigue. It may benefit cognitive function and improve short term memory and visual perception.
- Gabrielian ES, Shukarian AK, Goukasova GI, et al. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections including sinusitis. Phytomedicine. 2002;9:589-597.
- Williams M. Immuno-protection against herpes simplex type II infection by Eleutherococcus root extract. Int J Alt Complement Med. 1995;13:9-12.
- Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Sacher F, Esperester A. Antiviral activity of an extract derived from roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Antiviral Res. 2001;50(3):223-8.
- Goulet ED, Dionne IJ. Assessment of the effects of eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15(1):75-83.
- Panossian A, Wikman G. Evidence-based efficacy of adaptogens in fatigue, and molecular mechanisms related to their stress-protective activity. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Sep 1. PMID: 19500070
- Cichello SA1, Yao Q, Dowell A, Leury B, He XQ.Displayed an inhibitory effect against some cancer cell lines Proliferative and Inhibitory Activity of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) Extract on Cancer Cell Lines. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. A-549, XWLC-05, HCT-116, CNE and Beas-2b.2015;16(11):4781-6.
- Arushanian EB, Baĭda OA, Mastiagin SS, Popova AP, Shikina I B. Effect of eleutherococcus on short-term memory and visual perception in healthy humans. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2003 Sep-Oct;66(5):10-3. PMID: 14650206 Sep 01, 2003
- Glatthaar S, Sacher F, Esperester A. Antiviral activity of an extract derived from roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Antiviral Res. 2001 Jun;50(3):223-8. PMID: 11397509B
- Enno. Freye, J. Gleske Glucose metabolism Siberian Ginseng Results in Beneficial Effects on Glucose Metabolism in Diabetes Type 2 Patients: A Double Blind Placebo-Controlled Study in Comparison to Panax Ginseng. International Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume 1 issue 1
- Winther K, Ranlov C, Rein E, et al. Russian root (Siberian ginseng) improves cognitive functions in middle-aged people, whereas Ginkgo biloba seems effective only in the elderly. J Neurological Sci. 1997;150:S90